Repairing the laptop is a complicated task if you don’t know how. In this article you will be able to know what the most common problems that occur to laptops are and how they can be repaired easily without having to go to the technician.
This is how you can say this post is all about “How to repair the Laptop step by step” guide for beginners.
What do I need to Repair the Laptop?
Before you start repairing the laptop, you should arm yourself with everything you need for it. The most basic things you should have are:
- Phillips type screwdriver and precision screwdrivers
- Something thin to pry the casing open
- Antistatic wristband
- Virus software
- Diagnostic tools
- Bootable USB or DVD with the operating system in case it is necessary to repair, reinstall, format, etc.
- Hardware device drivers
- Model Manual for how the case can be opened, as it can vary greatly from design to design
Obviously, for some tasks you may need other tools or devices, such as tweezers, a soldering iron, a vacuum cleaner, etc., but with these basic things, you can solve a large number of problems.
How to Repair the Laptop: Problems and Their Solutions
Once you are sure you have what you need, the next thing to do would be to start analyzing the causes of the most common laptop problems for repair: Before proceeding to open the laptop to try to repair it, you should have some considerations.
- First, whether or not the warranty is in force and whether or not the manufacturer allows opening the equipment without losing it. If not, it is better to deliver the equipment to the technical service to enjoy the privileges of the warrantee
- You should always work with the laptop turned off and unplugged, as well as with the battery removed to avoid incidents with electric shocks
- Do not force the components or you could damage them
- Whenever doubts arise, consult the manufacturer’s manual and respect its recommendations
- Your laptop crashes sometimes
- It restarts or freezes coinciding with overheating or running heavy loads like video games
- Performance is reduced
- You notice that the fans are making too much noise or the sensors are giving you values that are too high
- Problems with the CPU or GPU cooling system
- Due to clogged ventilation slots or heatsinks
- Fan failure.
- Sensors with problems, etc
- It could even be due to poor management of the fans by the firmware, something that would be solved by updating the BIOS/UEFI
- Cleaning the vents or dust filters that come with some computers can often solve the problem. You can do it using a special vacuum/blower for these purposes, with compressed CO2 bottles, with a brush, etc.
- Another possible solution is to also clean the heatsinks, which tend to accumulate a lot of dirt, as well as the fan itself.
- If the cooling system does not work at all, check that it is properly connected, and if it is, replace with a compatible one. When you change this system, don’t forget to use thermal paste again for the CPU and GPU.
Hard Drive is Slow
- Excessive program loading times.
- Slow file transfers.
- It takes too long to boot up the system, etc.
- Defragmentation of files.
- Hardware problems with the storage drive.
- Bottleneck etc.
- Possible solutions to these problems include analyzing and defragmenting your hard drive (Go to Computer, right-click on the drive that needs defragmentation, and hit Defragment to start) to try to speed up file access.
- Review and repair the Windows registry itself with tools like CCleaner and Registry Repair, as sometimes the registry is also the source of certain slowness issues.
- Replace the storage drive with another since it may be starting to fail (you can check the status of your drive using SMART).
The Battery Discharges Easily
Your laptop only works for a few minutes when not unplugged or the battery drains much faster than before.
- Deteriorated battery.
- Charger Problem.
- Slack in the power connector.
- Replace the battery with an original or compatible one.
- Replace the charger with another original or compatible adapter.
- Repair the adapter connector, since it will be making contact only occasionally and will not charge the battery, which is why it is never at 100%.
Problems with the Keyboard
- Missing or loose keys
- Some key is too hard or does not respond at all
- None of the keys work
- Damaged keys or deteriorated mechanisms.
- Problems with the keyboard circuit board.
- Cables or connectors in poor condition or disconnected.
- If a keycap has simply come off and is lost but the mechanism is intact, purchase a compatible keycap and add it.
- In case the keys do not work properly, try to clean the dirt with pressurized CO2 or special vacuum cleaners for keyboards.
- If it is a problem with the membrane or mechanism of the key, replace it if it is modular.
- Check that the keyboard connector to the motherboard is well connected and in good condition.
- In any other case, replace the keyboard with another compatible with your laptop.
Wireless or Wired Connectivity Issues
- No internet connection
- Frequent timeouts during web browsing
- The network disconnects or does not connect
- Improper network configuration
- Wrong password for Wi-Fi
- Network cabling in poor condition or poorly connected
- Problems with network equipment (adapter, router, hub…)
- Check that you are connected to Wi-Fi or cable in your operating system
- Make sure the router is broadcasting
- Check the cables and connection indicator lights if they are flashing or on
- Rule out software problems by running a Linux Live USB or CD and testing if it connects from it
- If it doesn’t connect either, then replace the network card if it isn’t integrated
Stuck or Dead Pixels
- Green or red dots on the screen
- Blackheads that do not light up or change color
- Stuck Pixel
- Dead pixel
- Dead pixels cannot be fixed unless the display panel is changed
- In the case of stuck pixels, they can be solved by rubbing the area where the stuck pixels are with the help of a dry cotton cloth, taking care not to damage the screen with excess pressure
Other issues with the display may also occur, such as being black with no apparent activity, which could mean a problem with the panel that you will need to replace with another, or perhaps it is a problem with the connector to the display’s motherboard.
If you see strange lines horizontally or vertically, or color changes in areas of the screen, it is likely that you are also facing a problem with the panel of your screen and it must be solved by also replacing the screen
Operating System Failure
- The operating system does not boot.
- It gets stuck on the home screen.
- A system error message appears.
- Data corruption
- Some vital operating system file is missing.
- Other problems with the system boot system.
- First rule out problems with the hard drive by removing it and trying it in another laptop. If it is, replace the hard drive, if it works on another computer, and then go to the next point.
- Check that the BIOS/UEFI is booting from the proper drive, especially if the system won’t boot when you have a USB flash drive or external hard drive connected.
- Try to start the system in Safe Mode or access the recovery tools or partition that many laptops have (Recovery Mode).
- You can also try to check the status of the files with CHECKDISK.
- Reinstall the operating system or format and install the fresh operating system. Mind you, this will delete all your programs, settings, and data.
If the computer won’t boot at all, with no LEDs on or fan activity, then it may be a hardware problem, either with the motherboard or with the power supply.
These cases are more difficult to verify, since the team does not throw any error or anything that could give clues. You should check with the help of tools such as a multimeter if it is a matter of the power supply or the motherboard.
- Excessive popups
- Slow downloads or the system itself.
- Strange behaviors.
- Use of fans and consumption of resources and/or excessive battery.
- Unexpected restarts whenever a certain action is performed.
- Data corruption
- Not being able to access the files because they are encrypted or have changed format.
- Infection by some type of malware (worm, virus, Trojan,
- Run a good antivirus or antimalware scanner to try to detect the malicious code and remove it. Sometimes it is complicated, and you should start your system in safe mode and from there not use one tool but several, since some viruses escape certain programs and not others.
- Make sure your system is always up to date, a good pop-up blocker, good firewall settings, and good antivirus software.
Outdated GPU Video Drivers
- There is no image on the screen or it is distorted.
- Unexpected restarts.
- Errors or instability in the system.
- Blue screens.
- Inappropriate, outdated, or buggy graphics driver.
- Driver conflicts, especially when you have an IGPU +
- Download the appropriate graphics drivers for your computer from the official website of your laptop manufacturer in the support and download area or download the specific driver directly from the website of the manufacturer of your graphics system (Intel, NVIDIA, and AMD).
- Sometimes the CPU and the motherboard could also give some common symptoms with the GPU, so you have to be very sure what it is before proceeding to replace any component.
RAM Memory Failures
- Unexpected reboots
- blue screenshots
- Unable to install operating system
- System won’t boot and strange beeps are heard on boot or error messages
- The amount of memory displayed in the operating system or BIOS/UEFI does not match the actual memory installed.
- Passing programs like Memtest86+ detects memory leaks.
- One or more modules have problems.
- Replaces the affected module with another with the same characteristics. Remember that the brand and the capacity are not important, but respect the clock frequency at which it works and the latency, to prevent the system from adapting to the module with the lowest performance.
- Unexpected reboots
- Blue screenshots
- Blocks during the game
- No graphics displayed on the screen
- Graphics appear but with strange pixelated or shapes (artifacts)
- Problems with the GPU or VRAM of your graphics card. If it is integrated into the CPU, such as Intel or AMDIGPU’s, the entire CPU will need to be replaced.
- Replace the GPU with another if you can, as many laptops have it integrate or soldered to the motherboard and cannot be easily replaced. And rebelling is not a very advisable alternative.
BONUS: other Laptop Issues
Of course, these common problems are not the only ones that can happen to a laptop, but there are many more. To proceed to diagnose and detect the cause and then proceed to solve it, I advise you to follow these simple steps:
See Also: How much Power does a Gaming PC Consume
- Always start from the simplest to the most complex.
- Isolate and you will win. That is, go disconnecting components and see if the failure continues until you find the component that fails.
- Before you throw away and buy a new component, try the component on another computer to see if it works or if it’s an interface/port/connection issue. If it doesn’t work on another computer either, then it’s a problem with that component.
I hope this helps you to solve some of the most common computer problems and how to fix your laptop. Don’t forget to comment.
Zahid Khan Jadoon is an Interior Decorator, Designer and a specialized Chef and loves to write about home appliances and food. Right now he is running his interior designing business along with a managing a restaurant. Also in his spare time he loves to write about home and kitchen appliances.